编程案例仓库

承遇朝霞,年少正恰,整装戎马,刻印风华。

手写RPC框架第二章《netty通信》

案例介绍
在我们实现rpc框架的时候,需要选择socket的通信方式。而我们知道一般情况下socket通信类似与qq聊天,发过去消息,什么时候回复都可以。但是我们rpc框架通信,从感觉上类似http调用,需要在一定时间内返回,否则就会发生超时断开。

这里我们选择netty作为我们的socket框架,采用future方式进行通信。

Netty是由JBOSS提供的一个java开源框架。Netty提供异步的、事件驱动的网络应用程序框架和工具,用以快速开发高性能、高可靠性的网络服务器和客户端程序。也就是说,Netty 是一个基于NIO的客户、服务器端编程框架,使用Netty 可以确保你快速和简单的开发出一个网络应用,例如实现了某种协议的客户、服务端应用。Netty相当于简化和流线化了网络应用的编程开发过程,例如:基于TCP和UDP的socket服务开发。“快速”和“简单”并不用产生维护性或性能上的问题。Netty 是一个吸收了多种协议(包括FTP、SMTP、HTTP等各种二进制文本协议)的实现经验,并经过相当精心设计的项目。最终,Netty 成功的找到了一种方式,在保证易于开发的同时还保证了其应用的性能,稳定性和伸缩性。

环境准备
1、jdk 1.8.0
2、IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition 2018.3.1 x64

代码示例

itstack-demo-rpc-02
└── src
    └── main
    │    └── java
    │        └── org.itstack.demo.rpc.network
    │             ├── client
    │             │   ├── ClientSocket.java
    │             │   └── MyClientHandler.java  
    │             ├── codec
    │             │   ├── RpcDecoder.java
    │             │   └── RpcEncoder.java  
    │             ├── future
    │             │   ├── SyncWrite.java    
    │             │   ├── SyncWriteFuture.java  
    │             │   ├── SyncWriteMap.java 
    │             │   └── WriteFuture.java  
    │             ├── msg
    │             │   ├── Request.java
    │             │   └── Response.java 
    │             ├── server
    │             │   ├── MyServerHandler.java
    │             │   └── ServerSocket.java     
    │             └── util
    │                 └── SerializationUtil.java    
    └── test
         └── java
             └── org.itstack.demo.test
                 ├── client
                 │   └── StartClient.java
                 └── server
                     └── StartServer.java                

ClientSocket.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.client;

import io.netty.bootstrap.Bootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInitializer;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelOption;
import io.netty.channel.EventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioSocketChannel;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.codec.RpcDecoder;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.codec.RpcEncoder;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Request;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class ClientSocket implements Runnable {

    private ChannelFuture future;

    @Override
    public void run() {
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            Bootstrap b = new Bootstrap();
            b.group(workerGroup);
            b.channel(NioSocketChannel.class);
            b.option(ChannelOption.AUTO_READ, true);
            b.handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                @Override
                public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(
                            new RpcDecoder(Response.class),
                            new RpcEncoder(Request.class),
                            new MyClientHandler());
                }
            });
            ChannelFuture f = b.connect("127.0.0.1", 7397).sync();
            this.future = f;
            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }

    public ChannelFuture getFuture() {
        return future;
    }

    public void setFuture(ChannelFuture future) {
        this.future = future;
    }
}

MyClientHandler.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.client;

import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future.SyncWriteFuture;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future.SyncWriteMap;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class MyClientHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object obj) throws Exception {
        Response msg = (Response) obj;
        String requestId = msg.getRequestId();
        SyncWriteFuture future = (SyncWriteFuture) SyncWriteMap.syncKey.get(requestId);
        if (future != null) {
            future.setResponse(msg);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void exceptionCaught(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Throwable cause) {
        cause.printStackTrace();
        ctx.close();
    }

}

RpcDecoder.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.codec;

import io.netty.buffer.ByteBuf;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.handler.codec.ByteToMessageDecoder;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.util.SerializationUtil;

import java.util.List;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class RpcDecoder extends ByteToMessageDecoder {

    private Class<?> genericClass;

    public RpcDecoder(Class<?> genericClass) {
        this.genericClass = genericClass;
    }

    @Override
    protected void decode(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, ByteBuf in, List<Object> out) {
        if (in.readableBytes() < 4) {
            return;
        }
        in.markReaderIndex();
        int dataLength = in.readInt();
        if (in.readableBytes() < dataLength) {
            in.resetReaderIndex();
            return;
        }
        byte[] data = new byte[dataLength];
        in.readBytes(data);
        out.add(SerializationUtil.deserialize(data, genericClass));
    }

}

RpcEncoder.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.codec;

import io.netty.buffer.ByteBuf;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.handler.codec.MessageToByteEncoder;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.util.SerializationUtil;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class RpcEncoder extends MessageToByteEncoder {

    private Class<?> genericClass;

    public RpcEncoder(Class<?> genericClass) {
        this.genericClass = genericClass;
    }

    @Override
    protected void encode(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object in, ByteBuf out)  {
        if (genericClass.isInstance(in)) {
            byte[] data = SerializationUtil.serialize(in);
            out.writeInt(data.length);
            out.writeBytes(data);
        }
    }

}

SyncWrite.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future;

import io.netty.channel.Channel;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFutureListener;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Request;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

import java.util.UUID;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class SyncWrite {

    public Response writeAndSync(final Channel channel, final Request request, final long timeout) throws Exception {

        if (channel == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException("channel");
        }
        if (request == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException("request");
        }
        if (timeout <= 0) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("timeout <= 0");
        }

        String requestId = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
        request.setRequestId(requestId);

        WriteFuture<Response> future = new SyncWriteFuture(request.getRequestId());
        SyncWriteMap.syncKey.put(request.getRequestId(), future);

        Response response = doWriteAndSync(channel, request, timeout, future);

        SyncWriteMap.syncKey.remove(request.getRequestId());
        return response;
    }

    private Response doWriteAndSync(final Channel channel, final Request request, final long timeout, final WriteFuture<Response> writeFuture) throws Exception {

        channel.writeAndFlush(request).addListener(new ChannelFutureListener() {
            public void operationComplete(ChannelFuture future) throws Exception {
                writeFuture.setWriteResult(future.isSuccess());
                writeFuture.setCause(future.cause());
                //失败移除
                if (!writeFuture.isWriteSuccess()) {
                    SyncWriteMap.syncKey.remove(writeFuture.requestId());
                }
            }
        });

        Response response = writeFuture.get(timeout, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
        if (response == null) {
            if (writeFuture.isTimeout()) {
                throw new TimeoutException();
            } else {
                // write exception
                throw new Exception(writeFuture.cause());
            }
        }
        return response;
    }

}

SyncWriteFuture.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future;

import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class SyncWriteFuture implements WriteFuture<Response> {

    private CountDownLatch latch = new CountDownLatch(1);
    private final long begin = System.currentTimeMillis();
    private long timeout;
    private Response response;
    private final String requestId;
    private boolean writeResult;
    private Throwable cause;
    private boolean isTimeout = false;

    public SyncWriteFuture(String requestId) {
        this.requestId = requestId;
    }

    public SyncWriteFuture(String requestId, long timeout) {
        this.requestId = requestId;
        this.timeout = timeout;
        writeResult = true;
        isTimeout = false;
    }

    public Throwable cause() {
        return cause;
    }

    public void setCause(Throwable cause) {
        this.cause = cause;
    }

    public boolean isWriteSuccess() {
        return writeResult;
    }

    public void setWriteResult(boolean result) {
        this.writeResult = result;
    }

    public String requestId() {
        return requestId;
    }

    public Response response() {
        return response;
    }

    public void setResponse(Response response) {
        this.response = response;
        latch.countDown();
    }

    public boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) {
        return true;
    }

    public boolean isCancelled() {
        return false;
    }

    public boolean isDone() {
        return false;
    }

    public Response get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        latch.wait();
        return response;
    }

    public Response get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        if (latch.await(timeout, unit)) {
            return response;
        }
        return null;
    }

    public boolean isTimeout() {
        if (isTimeout) {
            return isTimeout;
        }
        return System.currentTimeMillis() - begin > timeout;
    }
}

SyncWriteMap.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future;

import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;

public class SyncWriteMap {

    public static Map<String, WriteFuture> syncKey = new ConcurrentHashMap<String, WriteFuture>();

}

WriteFuture.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future;

import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

import java.util.concurrent.Future;

public interface WriteFuture<T> extends Future<T> {

    Throwable cause();

    void setCause(Throwable cause);

    boolean isWriteSuccess();

    void setWriteResult(boolean result);

    String requestId();

    T response();

    void setResponse(Response response);

    boolean isTimeout();

}

Request.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class Request {

    private String requestId;
    private Object result;

    public String getRequestId() {
        return requestId;
    }

    public void setRequestId(String requestId) {
        this.requestId = requestId;
    }

    public Object getResult() {
        return result;
    }

    public void setResult(Object result) {
        this.result = result;
    }

}

Response.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class Response {

    private String requestId;
    private String param;

    public String getRequestId() {
        return requestId;
    }

    public void setRequestId(String requestId) {
        this.requestId = requestId;
    }

    public String getParam() {
        return param;
    }

    public void setParam(String param) {
        this.param = param;
    }

}

MyServerHandler.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.server;

import io.netty.channel.ChannelHandlerContext;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter;
import io.netty.util.ReferenceCountUtil;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Request;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class MyServerHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter{

    @Override
    public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object obj){
        Request msg = (Request) obj;
        //反馈
        Response request = new Response();
        request.setRequestId(msg.getRequestId());
        request.setParam(msg.getResult() + " 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。");
        ctx.writeAndFlush(request);
        //释放
        ReferenceCountUtil.release(msg);
    }

    @Override
    public void channelReadComplete(ChannelHandlerContext ctx) {
        ctx.flush();
    }

}

ServerSocket.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.server;

import io.netty.bootstrap.ServerBootstrap;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelInitializer;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelOption;
import io.netty.channel.EventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.nio.NioEventLoopGroup;
import io.netty.channel.socket.SocketChannel;
import io.netty.channel.socket.nio.NioServerSocketChannel;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.codec.RpcDecoder;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.codec.RpcEncoder;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Request;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class ServerSocket implements Runnable {

    private ChannelFuture f;

    @Override
    public void run() {
        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        try {
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup)
                    .channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class)
                    .option(ChannelOption.SO_BACKLOG, 128)
                    .childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                        @Override
                        public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch){
                            ch.pipeline().addLast(
                                    new RpcDecoder(Request.class),
                                    new RpcEncoder(Response.class),
                                    new MyServerHandler());
                        }
                    });

            ChannelFuture f = null;
            f = b.bind(7397).sync();
            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();

        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }

    }

}

SerializationUtil.java

package org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.util;

import com.dyuproject.protostuff.LinkedBuffer;
import com.dyuproject.protostuff.ProtostuffIOUtil;
import com.dyuproject.protostuff.Schema;
import com.dyuproject.protostuff.runtime.RuntimeSchema;
import org.objenesis.Objenesis;
import org.objenesis.ObjenesisStd;

import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;

/**
 * Created by fuzhengwei1 on 2016/10/20.
 */
public class SerializationUtil {

    private static Map<Class<?>, Schema<?>> cachedSchema = new ConcurrentHashMap();

    private static Objenesis objenesis = new ObjenesisStd();

    private SerializationUtil() {

    }

    /**
     * 序列化(对象 -> 字节数组)
     *
     * @param obj 对象
     * @return 字节数组
     */
    public static <T> byte[] serialize(T obj) {
        Class<T> cls = (Class<T>) obj.getClass();
        LinkedBuffer buffer = LinkedBuffer.allocate(LinkedBuffer.DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE);
        try {
            Schema<T> schema = getSchema(cls);
            return ProtostuffIOUtil.toByteArray(obj, schema, buffer);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(e.getMessage(), e);
        } finally {
            buffer.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * 反序列化(字节数组 -> 对象)
     *
     * @param data
     * @param cls
     * @param <T>
     */
    public static <T> T deserialize(byte[] data, Class<T> cls) {
        try {
            T message = objenesis.newInstance(cls);
            Schema<T> schema = getSchema(cls);
            ProtostuffIOUtil.mergeFrom(data, message, schema);
            return message;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(e.getMessage(), e);
        }
    }

    private static <T> Schema<T> getSchema(Class<T> cls) {
        Schema<T> schema = (Schema<T>) cachedSchema.get(cls);
        if (schema == null) {
            schema = RuntimeSchema.createFrom(cls);
            cachedSchema.put(cls, schema);
        }
        return schema;
    }

}

StartClient.java

package org.itstack.demo.test.client;

import com.alibaba.fastjson.JSON;
import io.netty.channel.ChannelFuture;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.client.ClientSocket;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.future.SyncWrite;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Request;
import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.msg.Response;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class StartClient {

    private static ChannelFuture future;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ClientSocket client = new ClientSocket();
        new Thread(client).start();

        while (true) {
            try {
                //获取future,线程有等待处理时间
                if (null == future) {
                    future = client.getFuture();
                    Thread.sleep(500);
                    continue;
                }
                //构建发送参数
                Request request = new Request();
                request.setResult("查询用户信息");
                SyncWrite s = new SyncWrite();
                Response response = s.writeAndSync(future.channel(), request, 1000);
                System.out.println("调用结果:" + JSON.toJSON(response));
                Thread.sleep(1000);
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

}

StartServer.java

package org.itstack.demo.test.server;

import org.itstack.demo.rpc.network.server.ServerSocket;

/**
 * http://www.itstack.org
 * create by fuzhengwei on 2019/5/6
 */
public class StartServer {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("启动服务端开始");
        new Thread(new ServerSocket()).start();
        System.out.println("启动服务端完成");
    }

}

测试结果

启动StartServer

启动服务端开始
启动服务端完成
log4j:WARN No appenders could be found for logger (io.netty.util.internal.logging.InternalLoggerFactory).
log4j:WARN Please initialize the log4j system properly.
log4j:WARN See http://logging.apache.org/log4j/1.2/faq.html#noconfig for more info.

启动StartClient

log4j:WARN No appenders could be found for logger (io.netty.util.internal.logging.InternalLoggerFactory).
log4j:WARN Please initialize the log4j system properly.
log4j:WARN See http://logging.apache.org/log4j/1.2/faq.html#noconfig for more info.
调用结果:{"param":"查询用户信息 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。","requestId":"3380f061-2501-49b5-998b-21b5956fe60a"}
调用结果:{"param":"查询用户信息 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。","requestId":"81c51815-4d92-482c-bd05-e4b6dfa4d3b6"}
调用结果:{"param":"查询用户信息 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。","requestId":"7af01c4f-a438-47a1-b35c-8e2cd7e4a5e7"}
调用结果:{"param":"查询用户信息 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。","requestId":"86e38bb1-eccc-4d45-b976-c3b67999e3ab"}
调用结果:{"param":"查询用户信息 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。","requestId":"7f72002c-3b38-43d9-8452-db8797298899"}
调用结果:{"param":"查询用户信息 请求成功,反馈结果请接受处理。","requestId":"d566a7d4-4b0d-426b-8c09-c535ccf8eb09"}

...

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《手写RPC框架第二章《netty通信》》

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